The Classical Architectural Marvel: The Pantheon of Rome | Berbagai Reviews

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22 Februari 2024

The Classical Architectural Marvel: The Pantheon of Rome

| 22 Februari 2024
Facts about the Pantheon

The Pantheon of Rome stands as one of the timeless architectural wonders that still proudly graces the cityscape of Rome, Italy. Constructed during the Roman Empire era, this structure epitomizes a perfect fusion of aesthetic beauty, engineering grandeur, and invaluable historical heritage. Let's delve deeper into the magnificence of the Pantheon.

History and Origins

The Pantheon was built during the reign of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, around 126 AD. Situated on the site of an earlier Roman temple, which was destroyed by fire in 80 AD, Hadrian commissioned this monumental reconstruction to replace the former temple.

Architectural Marvels

What makes the Pantheon so remarkable is its massive, domed structure, which remains the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world to this day. The dome boasts a diameter of approximately 43 meters, with a circular opening at its peak known as the "oculus," measuring around 9 meters in diameter. Not only does the oculus provide natural light into the building, but it also creates a dramatic spiritual effect as rain falls through the opening into the interior space.

In addition to its awe-inspiring dome, the interior of the Pantheon features towering columns that encircle the main chamber. These columns, crafted from granite and marble, stand at a height of about 14 meters, imparting an unforgettable sense of grandeur and classical elegance.

Functional Uniqueness

One of the intriguing aspects of the Pantheon is its unique functionality. Although originally constructed as a temple for Roman gods, the Pantheon was later converted into a Catholic church in the 7th century AD and continues to function as a church to this day. This shift in function reflects the long and complex historical journey of the city of Rome.

Legacy and Influence

The Pantheon has served as a wellspring of inspiration for architects and designers across the centuries. Its engineering prowess, aesthetic beauty, and distinctive design have influenced numerous churches and public buildings worldwide. Indeed, many of the architectural principles employed in the construction of the Pantheon are still studied and applied by modern architects.

Facts about the Pantheon

1. Construction Year

The Pantheon was built in 126 AD by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a replacement for a previously burnt temple.

2. Dome Architecture

The Pantheon's dome is the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world with a diameter of about 43 meters. At the top of the dome, there is a circular opening called the "oculus" with a diameter of around 9 meters.

3. Original Function

Initially, the Pantheon served as a pagan temple dedicated to Roman gods. However, in the 7th century AD, the building was converted into a Catholic church.

4. Magnificent Columns

Inside the Pantheon, there are 16 majestic granite columns surrounding the main chamber. These columns are about 14 meters tall and add grandeur to the building.

5. Material Usage

Besides concrete, the building incorporates marble, granite, and various types of natural stone in its construction.

6. Presence of Various Tombs

The Pantheon also serves as the final resting place for several notable figures, including King of Italy Vittorio Emanuele II and the renowned artist Raphael.

7. Architectural Influence

The design and construction of the Pantheon have influenced many church buildings and other public structures worldwide. Many modern architects are inspired by the beauty and technical excellence of this building.

8. Famous Visitors

Over time, the Pantheon has become one of the most popular tourist destinations in Rome, attracting millions of visitors annually.

9. Religious Celebrations

Every year on April 21, the feast day of Agrippa, the "rosa pantheon" ritual is held at the Pantheon, where rose petals are scattered through the oculus to brighten up the room.

10. Maintenance and Conservation

The Italian government actively maintains and conserves the Pantheon as part of their national cultural heritage, ensuring that this architectural marvel stands tall to be enjoyed by future generations.


The Pantheon of Rome stands as a testament to the enduring wonders of classical antiquity. With its majestic dome, exquisite columns, and rich history, the Pantheon not only serves as an icon of Rome but also bears silent witness to the glory of ancient Roman civilization. Its beauty continues to inspire and captivate visitors from around the globe, demonstrating that truly timeless architectural marvels never lose their allure.

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